It follows a four-day search operation at a farm near the border.
The bomb factory was discovered following a covert surveillance operation involving specialist military and police units.
Officers found six pipe bombs, 500kg of fertiliser and home-made explosives packs at the isolated farmhouse in Kinawley, Co Fermanagh.
Following five days of questioning, the man has been charged with possession of explosives and ammunition with intent to endanger life as well as possession of articles likely to be of use to terrorists.
He will be taken from the serious crime suite in Antrim where he has been held to make his first appearance at Enniskillen Magistrates’ Court.
Detectives from the PSNI’s Terrorist Investigation Unit said bomb timers, detonators and fuses were also seized during the search, along with a gun, 100 rounds of ammunition and forensic suits and gloves.
Police have linked the weapons to dissident republicans.
Detective Superintendent Kevin Geddes said:” Firstly I would like to thank the members of the public in the Kinawley area for their patience whilst my officers carried out a professional, policing operation over a number of days which has recovered a quantity of munitions.
“The items we have recovered have the potential to cause injury, damage and death, and Northern Ireland is a safer place with these items beyond the reach of the dangerous individuals who would seek to use them.”